a development of Hydrocarbon Data Systems, Inc.
LOG ANALYSIS PROGRAM was first conceived, developed and copyrighted in the
mid 1980s by HYDROCARBON DATA SYSTEMS, INC. of Houston, Texas.
It started life as a basic interpretation
application, which was designed to make the processing of multiple
calculations easier for a well-site geologist.
Over a very short period the program grew with the addition of more
functionality and in 1985 a decision was made to release it as a commercial
product. This first version, now
called HDS, ran on an MS-DOS platform
and soon developed into a very powerful and versatile tool with a considerable
user base. In the early 90s it
became obvious that HDS had to move into a Windows environment in order to meet
the power requirements of the users and to keep abreast of ever changing
technology. The move to Windows
proved to be a changing point for the company, as the Windows version of HDS
attracted a greater number of users, including petrophysicists, educational
establishments, governments and other sectors of the oil and gas industry.
This continuing evolution of the HDS system has now resulted in their
latest release, a very powerful and versatile interactive 32 Bit MS Windows
application. The HDS user base has
now increased to over 350 installations worldwide and the company has a
comprehensive pro-active (and reactive) development program in place.
Data Systems employs a small but dedicated team of specialists to further
develop, enhance and support the HDS software.
The team includes: programmers, geologists and a petrophysicist whose
combined efforts continue to produce the most reliable and robust log
analysis software on the market today.
original concept behind the HDS software was to make an easy-to-use but
effective tool for geologists and engineers.
Hydrocarbon Data Systems understood the needs of these individuals and as
a result incorporated some very basic principals in their software design.
These principals, which are still in effect today, are as follows:
The HDS program addresses most of the major requirements of a petrophysical package, which are as follows:
File Management Utilities
Multiple Data Input Routines
Versatile Data Editing Routines
Flexible Cross Plot Routines
Complete Calculation Suite
ASCII Data Output Files
Complete Help Files
addition to the above HDS also has numerous other in-built functions and tools
(which in some cases are quite unique to HDS) and which are described in brief
on the following pages. Further
information can also be supplied by Hydrocarbon Data Systems or their agents.
HDS program has been developed in a Windows environment and utilizes all the
functionality of Windows to make the software easy to use and understand plus
ensure that new users have the shortest possible learning curve.
The screens are designed to be uncluttered and clear and the user is
given the option to carry out either in-depth or simple quick look analysis
through a point and click menu system.
are controlled and operated via Windows 32-bit drop-down menus or interactive
icons, through the use of a mouse or cursor. The Main Menu controls the
branching of the program and gives the user full access to all major program
functions. Data is input into HDS
through either digitized input, an ASCII file, a DLIS file or an LIS file and
can be input as TVD (True Vertical Depth) or measured depth.
Well Description: This
option lists identification data of the well being investigated.
The fields in the Well Description are Path & File Name, Operator,
Well & Field Name, Location, Legal Description, County, State, A.P.I Number,
Wireline Company and the Processing Units of the file.
Borehole Environment: The primary function of this option is to control the depths
and the logging parameters for the log calculations. This section will store
five log runs of data. Most
environmental corrections will require input of the parameters from the log
Directional Surveys: The program can accept up to 1000 directional surveys from a
source such as a multishot. The
inputs include measured Depth, Inclination Angle and Drift Angle/Azimuth.
TVD and Total Rectangular Coordinates are computed instantly.
Five computation methods are available including "Radius of
Curvature". You may also
initialize several thousand feet down the hole by setting the rectangular
coordinates at a given depth. This
function allows for an accurate Pay Count total using TVD rather than measured
Formation Tops: This
option will set user defined zones of interest under designated formation names.
The formations can be used in various printouts and summary files and all
multi-well options. The information
is set graphically or spreadsheet. When
the Paycount Summary Option is accessed in combination with Formation Tops,
values such as Sw and Average Porosity are saved to disk in a format accessed by
most commercially available database programs for mapping and reserve estimates.
Information: Includes Perforation; Data Drill Stem Test (DST);
Repeat Formation Test (RFT); Sidewall Cores.
All information is set from the visual (graphical) or spreadsheet mode.
Data Editing: There
is a number of editing tools supplied with the software that are accessible in
spreadsheet or graphical (visual) formats.
The Data Editor Menu accesses
the following data manipulation routines:
Interactive Depth ShiftBaseline Shift Units Conversion Curve SmoothingDespike Graphical Patching Normalize Data Rescale CurvesMath Toolkit Splice
is saved as a new version of the curve. The
original data or the edit data can be referenced, processed or reviewed in most
any option. A note is created and
posted to the Process History table. The note will include the procedure and the curve name of any
Shifting option will move the log data on a linear shift or stretch/squeeze
mode. The log curves and the zones to be shifted are user defined
or you can use the auto-correlation mode where the program performs a
coefficient of the correlation.
statistical review of the log data can be viewed and/or printed in both text and
Histogram formats. The data can be
normalized using a multi-well model.
DLIS & LIS
This function is performed using a third party piece of software called EZTools,
which was developed and is licensed by Oilware, Inc. in conjunction with HDS.
EZLIS and EZDLIS feature direct
conversion to HDS Data Format and supports DLIS/LIS tape or disk files.
The software will read 800 and 1600 bpi data and most 9 track tape drives
and converts directly to the HDS format or an ASCII data format.
A Catamount, Overland, AKS or IDT controller card is required.
EZLIS is licensed and sold separately to the HDS
software, and may require a service call for installation.
ASCII File Reader: This
program will read most ASCII data formats including hundreds of interpretations
of the LAS format. It is the
quickest method of creating an HDS data file. You can view the entire ASCII file before the conversion
process commences and the types of data and the zones of interest for the HDS
file can be user defined. When the
HDS file is created the ASCII source file will remain in its original data
Digitize Log Input: The
Log Digitizing module supports most commercially available tablets.
The data input is in a point mode or in a stream mode for extremely fast
input of log data. The log data can be entered in intervals varying from 0.1 -
10 in units of feet or meters. When
entering data via digitizing tablet, a 200-foot section of log on a 5-inch scale
with 7 data curves can be digitized in 5 to 15 minutes depending on your
information that is input with the digitizing tablet is sorted numerically and
meshed with the other log data on file. If
you digitize over an existing curve or point, the program will automatically
save the latest information. All
data entered from the digitizing mode can be edited.
origins and scales are user defined in the setup. This eliminates errors in stretched or reproduced logs.
Both linear and logarithmic scales are available before digitizing.
The input data
is all depth related and the program accepts the curve information in any from
any wirieline data tool. This
includes but is not limited to:
. Gamma Ray . Neutron Porosity . Delta t (Dt) . Spectral Gamma Ray . Density Porosity
. Sonic Porosity . EPT Propagation . Spontaneous Potential . Bulk Density
. Caliper (Holesize Data) . Production Log Data . Resistivity Data . Bulk Density Correction
. Tension . Pulse Neutron (TDT) . Conductivity . Photo Electric (Pe) . Micro Logs
User Defined Data .
Core Data Input: This
option will read most ASCII core data files or the data can be input via
keyboard. All editing functions
offered in the Log Data Editor are available with this option. Core data can be
used in calculations and cross plots and it is available for graphical output.
The following is a list of acceptable data:
. Length . Oil % (Pore Volume) . Core Description . Grain Density
Gamma Ray . Water % (Pore Volume)
Production Code .
. K Permeability - Max
& Min .
are available for most logging company charts.
The visual interface displays the input curve, the output curve and the
correction factor. The corrections
are available for:
. Gamma Ray . Density . Neutron - Open Hole
. Neutron - Cased Hole . Invasion . Resistivity
can be accomplished in visual (graphical) or spreadsheet mode.
The following is a list of the major calculations and options performed
through user defined specifications.
Shale / Clay Volume
. Gamma Ray Index - Linear
Spontaneous Potential .
. Gamma Ray - Non Linear 10 models
Density-Neutron (Matrix or Ratio)
. Spectral GR
Multi-Clay Method .
Sonic Dispersed Shale Model
Neutron Log Options
. Neutron 15 Charts .
User Defined Matrix .
Effective Porosity Corrections
Density Log Options
. RhoB via Density Porosity
. Effective Porosity . Variable Pore Fluid
. Porosity via RhoB
User Defined Matrix
Density Log Options
. RhoB via Density Porosity . Effective Porosity
. Variable Pore Fluid
. Porosity via RhoB .
User Defined Matrix
. Straight Average
Sum of Squares .
Weighted Average .
Sonic Log Options
. Raymer/Hunt or Wyllie .
Hydrocarbon Corr. .
Shale - Dispersed or Laminated
. Variable Matrix
and Fluid .
Cross Plot Porosity Multiple Matrix Solutions for
. Neutron Density .
Neutron - Sonic .
. Rw corrected for temperature . Rw via Salinity
. Resistivity of Free
. Rw via SP method .
Rw via Rwa method .
Resistivity of Bound Water (Rwb)
. Rw via Pickett Plot
Rw via Hingle Plot .
Resistivity of Mixed Water (Rwm)
. Rt (Induction Log or Laterolog)
Flushed Zone Resistivity .
Laterolog - Seq. or Sim.
. Exponential Sxo
Water Saturation Models
Fertl Method .
Dual Water Analysis (2 Methods)
. Simandoux (3 Methods) .
Waxman-Smits (3 Methods)
Shell Equation .
Pulsed Neutron .
User Defined Formation Factor
. Coates & Dumanoir .
Wyllie & Rose . User Defined
. Cross Plot Porosity
Sand/Shale Environment .
Rho Matrix Apparent
P.E. 3-4 Mineral Model
M - N Plot
. Dt Matrix Apparent
VB Scripting User-Defined Equations
. Full Screen Edit
If-Then-Else Logic .
Run Simultaneous Equations
True Vertical Depth
. Radius of Curvature Method .
Input All Surveys or Initialize the Rectangular Coordinates for first depth
. Bulk Volume Water (BVW) . Movable Oil Saturation (MOS) .
Movable Hydrocarbon Index (Sw/Sxo)
. Water Saturation Ratio (Swr)
Residual Oil Saturation (ROS)
. Badhole Logic
. Irreducible Water Saturation (Swi)
Hydrocarbon Pore Volume (HPV)
As many as
twenty (20) calculation templates can be built and saved to meet your general
needs as new files are created. The
option, Master Default File, will save a set of calculation options and
parameters in a calculation template. This
is particularly useful when working with several wells in a particular field or
trend. Any formula or parameter set
from a calculation template can be overwritten in the Calculation Options.
Tweak (Interactive Parameter Setup): is a new routine for interactively setting most of the petrophysical parameters for a given zone. The results of any parameter change are instantly shown on the screen. The menus for each parameter group includes a cross plot (representing standard chart books), input boxes and choice lists, numeric slider controls, and log plots with the input and processed curves. The parameters can be set with the numeric sliders, entering a value in the input boxes, clicking on the log plots, clicking on the cross plots, and in some cases clicking on a histogram.
In addition to the user selections, an automatic
parameter selection (AutoSel) can be called.
This option will determine parameters for a reservoir based on
geo-statistics. The analytical
menus include multiple shale/clay options, all single porosity setup, the full
range of cross plot porosity
options, multiple water saturation models with associated parameters and
lithology determination. The water
saturation menu gives the user the choice of toggling through all of the
possible porosities, single and multiple shales, formation factors, and
saturation equations with immediate review.
program will perform the analysis on a zone by zone basis which is defined by
the user. All parameters set in the
module are moved forward to other sections of the software for end product
processing. There are petrophysical
tips interlaced through the program to assist the analyst.
CROSS PLOT options include Hingle Cross Plots, Pickett Cross-Plots, M-N Cross Plots, Porosity Lithology Cross-Plots and User Defined Cross-Plots. In total there are 23 preset cross plots plus an unlimited number of user defined plots. The cross plots feature a user defined curve fitting and data identification of depth in reference to a log curve. Multi-well cross plots and log plot options are now available as new feature in this section.
User Defined Cross Plots can access any three curves for X, Y and Z-axis.
All scales are user selectable. The
graphs can be log/log, log/linear or linear/linear.
This option has curve fit math routines.
On screen editing is offered on all cross plots.
multi-well options will work with a group of well files from a user-defined
project. The routines are:
. Calculations .
Pay Summaries .
. Cross Sections
Once a well
list is built, the data can be run through any number of routines and generate
your desired output. The pay
summary output can include multiple well files over set formations all written
to one file (ASCII or Excel). This
file can easily be moved to any mapping or reserves package. The cross section plot includes (x) number of wells that can
be tied structurally or stratigraphically.
The crossplot options include a curve normalizing routine.
options consist of Tabular Form, Payzone Averaging, Formation Averaging, and Log
Plots. All printouts can be viewed
on the screen, printed on the selected printer or saved as a disk file
(ASCII/BMP). The proceeding pages
include some of the output options included in this package.
Log Plot options produce a user-defined image of input data,
process data (calculated) and/or core data.
All curves, tracks and scales are set by the user or a user defined
template. The complete Windows
palette of colors and patterns is available.
The output of the plot can be printed on most printers and plotters.
features are: up to 8 tracks plus the depth track on any plot; unlimited curves (input/calculated/core)
per track; all curves are user defined; 8 selections for width of the track;
user-defined vertical scale options; line type selection (7 styles); perforation
markers; pay zone markers; formation labels; annotation of text; DSTs;
RFTs; core markers; log foot notes; print as measured depth, SubSea or TVD;
on screen editing; all plots saved as templates for future use with other well
Tabular Form will print all log data and all calculated data.
There are user-defined settings for all output curves and the depth
ranges. A summary of all
calculation options is available with all text printouts.
Payzone Summaries will apply user-defined cutoffs from any
calculation or input data. One or
any combination of cutoffs can be used in this option. The printout will display the total hydrocarbon feet and the
average values from the data that meets the designated criteria.
This printout will access the whole file or user defined formations.
If formations are used each formation is summarized and printed
OPERATOR: HDS O&G
WELL NAME: Sample Log
A.P.I. NUMBER: 12345-5678
- 1 Sand - Gas (4437.0 4480.0)
- 3 Sand - Gas
- 4 Sand - Oil (4807.5 4952.0)
Totals -- All Formations
Pay Zone Cutoff Filters & Calculation Options
40.00 Max.; Porosity
18.00 Min.; Sw 50.00
-- Shale Volume
Gamma Ray Larinov Teriary
Gamma Max. - Min:
-- Density Porosity
Pore Fluid Density:
Calc. Effective Density:
-- Neutron Porosity
Neutron Log Type:
Calc. Effective Neutron:
-- Neutron-Density Porosity
Gas Corrected Density
Corr. 1 - 200%:
-- True Resistivity
-- Water Resistivity
0.034 @ 133.97F
-- Water Saturation
Water Saturation Model:
Cementation Exponent (M):
Saturation Exponent (N):
Porosity Source for
MAJOR PROGRAM FUNCTIONS
Flexible Management of all Data Curves and Data Sets
Robust Data Loading Options
Complete Set of Data Editing Tools
The user may set any variable interactively on log or spreadsheet.
All variables have default values if they are not set by the user.
All Models display required support information
All Options are saved with Calculated Data for reuse.
Complex Lithology Determination.
Interactive and Full Featured Cross Plots
Batch File Processing.
Hydrocarbon Data Systems have a number of projects underway to further
improve and extend the capabilities of HDS.
Some of these projects are listed below and most have been recommended by
the user base.
Hydrocarbon Data Systems also
offer consulting services in petrophysical applications, training, digitizing
and tape conversion services.
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